Lived Experiences of Online and Offline Victimization

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Irene Zempi, Imran Awan
  • Bristol, UK: 
    Policy Press
    , January
     88 pages.
     For other formats: Link to Publisher's Website.
Review coming soon!

Review by Mohd Irfan Shah forthcoming.


Muslims living in Western nations are increasingly facing overt hostility and even hate crimes, both in everyday life and in online interactions. This book examines the experience and effects of those hate crimes on the victims, their families, and their communities. Built on the first national study in the United Kingdom to examine the nature, extent, and determinants of hate crime against Muslims in the physical and virtual worlds, it highlights the relationship between online and offline attacks, especially in the globalized world. It prominently features the voices of victims themselves, which lend nuance to the accounts and make the reality of these attacks and their consequences palpable.

About the Author(s)/Editor(s)/Translator(s): 

Irene Zempi is a lecturer in criminology at Nottingham Trent University.

Imran Awan is deputy director of the Centre for Applied Criminology at Birmingham City University.

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